Emission reductions have led to improvements in air quality in Europe, but not enough to avoid unacceptable damage to human health and the environment. We need to tackle the root causes of air pol-lution, which calls for a fundamental and innovative transformation of our mobility, energy and food systems. This process of change requires action from us all, including public authorities, businesses, citizens and research community. EEA Executive Director Hans Bruyninckx

Diesel exhaust emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) kill nearly half a million Europeans each year.

Since their introduction, diesel engines have been dirty and wasteful, converting less than half of the energy in diesel fuel to mechanical energy in the engine. HMW-PIB combustion technology demonstrates that, contrary to conventional belief, this energy loss is due to inef-fcient combustion, rather than limitations of thermody-namics. Harnessing the phenomenon of viscoelasticty, HMWPIB technology makes it possible to convert a much higher percentage of diesel fuel’s internal energy into work energy. Combustion is more effcient, PM is reduced, and high rate of heat release that causes NOx is avoided.

Fundamental Change In Combustion Science

HMWPIB represents a seismic change in the how we think about combustion of liquid hydrocarbon fuels(1)Physical properties, not solely chemical contents, dictate the amount of a fuel’s energy released during combustion. In a diesel engine fuel is sprayed from an injector, blended with air, and vaporized in the heat of the cylinder. This is a physical process. How the fuel performs physically in each step during this transition determines how much of its energy is extracted when it burns. It sounds simple and it is. No matter how simple, disruptive discoveries like this take years, even centu-ries, to gain acceptance. Incremental advances are another story. When a tech-nological innovation improves results by 0.25% it is her-alded. When it improves results by 25%, it is dismissed as too far outside expected parameters to be legitimate. tional regulatory, technological, and economic remedies can offer to reduce the health threat posed by diesel emissions. They will take years to make even modest improvements. In the meantime, millions of people will die from pollution-related causes and trillions will be spent.3 Small, incremental changes are the best that conventional regulatory, technological, and economic remedies can offer to reduce the health threat posed by diesel emissions. They will take years to make even modest improvements. In the meantime, millions of people will die from pollution-related causes and trillions will be spent. (3)

Why Now?

  • The cost of incremental change is unacceptably high: (2)
  • 524,000 premature deaths* annually in EU 40. (WHO,
  • A quarter of a million hospital admissions. (WHO, 2015)
  • 100 million lost working days cumulatively costing over €900 billion. (WHO, 2015)
  • € 1.28 trillion annual economic cost of health impacts, morbidity, lost workforce productivity. (WHO, 2015)
  • Total annual morbidity and mortality costs estimat-ed at €1.43 trillion per year. (WHO, 2015).

Why HMWPIB?

Because no other technology can do what HMWPIB can do. Now, today, HMWPIB technol-ogy can reduce deadly diesel emissions, increase fuel effciency, and signifcantly curb output of greenhouse gasses. It can do this with standard diesel fuel in all existing and future diesel engines, in cars, trucks, and off-road equipment. It can do even more in engines optimized for its use.

Our Goal Today

Is to engage change agents who together with us will promote the utilization of the HMWPIB technology to address the health crisis that diesel emissions have created in Europe.

*Premature deaths are defned as deaths that occur before a person reaches an expected age. This expected age is typically the age of standard life expectancy for a country and gender. Premature deaths are considered to be preventable if their cause can be eliminated.

European Air Pollution Health Crisis

Morbidity and mortality attributable to vehicular air pollution is a public health emergency.

Over a half million people die each year in the Europe from exposure to fne particulate matter (PM2.5), ozone (O3), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from diesel emissions.4 Millions more are harmed: lung disease and cancers from long-term exposure; sudden cardiac death from short-term exposure.5 Damaging effects are seen even before birth. Emerging evidence links air pollution to fetal development disorders known to cause life-long cognitive defcits, and adult-onset chronic diseases.

Long-term Exposure Risks

Long-term exposure to PM2.5 increases risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), uncontrolled asthma, liver cancer (34% increase for a 5-μg/m3 in PM2.5), meta-bolic disease (obesity, diabetes), lung cancer (~20% increased risk), and all-cause mortality.8-16Exposure to NOx raises risk for lung cancer an esti-mates 3-4% for every 10-μg/m3 increase in NOx (95% CI: 1%, 5%).17 In 2014, 7% of the urban population of the EU-28 were exposed to NOx concentrations above WHO and EU standards, with 94% of all excess exposure occurring due to traffic.

Exposure Risk: Heart Disease

Meta-analysis of data from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution (ESCAPE) project confrmed that long-term exposure to PM is associated with higher incidence of heart attacks.7 This association persists even at levels of exposure below the current European limit values (25 μg/m3 for PM2.5, 40 μg/m3 for PM10).7 The study concluded that a 5 μg/m3 increase in estimated annual mean PM2.5 was associated with a 13% increased risk of coronary events (HR 1.13, 95% confdence interval 0.98 to 1.30), and a 10 μg/m3 increase in estimated an-nual mean PM10 was associated with a 12% increased risk of coronary events (HR 1.12, CI=1.01 to 1.25).

Exposure Risk: Stroke, Asthma

Other nega-tive health outcomes of short-term PM2.5 exposure for which research data are available include elevated blood pressure (1.12 mm Hg increase for each 10 μg/m3 PM2.5), ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke (21% stroke-attributed increase in hospital admissions), acute asthma, and myocardial infarction (2.2% increased risk per 10 μg/m3).

Exposure Risk: Low Birth Weight

Numerous studies have found dose-dependent associations be-tween PM2.5 exposure and incidence of low birth weight at term.6,24 Low birth weight is a short-term effect that has serious long-term consequences including adult onset of diabetes, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, thrombosis, hypertension, and arrhythmias.22 Even exposures to PM2.5 concen-trations below the minimum recommended by the European Union are also associated with an increased risk of low birth weight.24 The total cost attributable to consequences of low birth weight has been estimated to be €219.09 billion, including €157.39 billion in direct medical costs and €62 billion in reduced productivity.

Exposure Risk: Neurological Damage

Only recently have data been gathered on the number of children born with emissions-linked neurologic abnor-malities including hyperactivity, neurodegeneration, neurodysfunction, attention defcit/hypersensitivity defciencies, and autism.25 Accumulating evidence sug-gests that urban air pollution may have signifcant im-pact on the central nervous system and the developing brain.26,27 While evidence for direct causality is inconclu-sive, population data and pathophysiological evidence strongly support the need for preventive intervention.

“Long-term exposure to fne particulate air pollution was associated with natural-cause mortality, even within concentration ranges well below the present European annual mean limit value.” European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution (ESCAPE) Efects Report. Lancet. 2014

Deadliest Emission: Particulate Matter (PM)

All diesel emissions are not equally dead-ly. NOx is bad, but PM is worse.

The European Environment Agency (EEA) report on premature deaths in EU-28 and EU-40 countries di-rectly attributable to diesel exhaust pollutants is broken down by pollutant: fne particulate matter (PM2.5), ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). By far the most damag-ing to human health is PM2.5— atmospheric particulate matter with a diameter less than 2.5 micrometers, small enough to invade even the smallest airways. Diesel particulates account for up to approximately 90% of PM2.5 in major cities.23 In 2012 numbers, 432,000 premature deaths were at-tributable to PM2.5 in 40 EU countries. Another 75,000 deaths to NOx and 17,000 to O3.

  • Deaths
  • EU-40
  • EU-28
  • PM (2.5)
  • 432 000
  • 403 000
  • NO (2)
  • 75 000
  • 72 000
  • O(3)
  • 17 000
  • 16 000

(Source: European Environment Agency. Air quality in Europe — 2015 report)

Over 70% of PM-related deaths are caused by cardio-vascular disorders such as myocardial infarction (MI), cardiac arrhythmias, ischemic stroke, vascular dysfunction, hypertension, and atherosclerosis.28,29 The positive relationship between cardiovascular mortality and PM exposure has been proved in many large time-series and case-crossover studies. Even a 10 μg/m3 increase in short-term (<24 h) PM2.5 level increases the relative risk (RR) of daily cardiovascular mortality by an esti-mated 0.4 to 1.0 percent. [/av_textblock] [av_hr class='custom' height='50' shadow='no-shadow' position='left' custom_border='av-border-thin' custom_width='75%' custom_border_color='#e5e5e5' custom_margin_top='15px' custom_margin_bottom='15px' icon_select='no' custom_icon_color='' icon='ue808' font='entypo-fontello' admin_preview_bg=''] [av_textblock size='' font_color='' color='' av-medium-font-size='' av-small-font-size='' av-mini-font-size='' admin_preview_bg='']

PM (2.5) Tip Of The Iceberg

Researchers are only just beginning to investigate the health impacts of exposure to particulate matter in the nanoparticle size range. This is of particular concern because newer engines produce propotionally greater numbers of these ultra-tiny particles (lower net mass, higher net number of particles).

HMWPIB Transforms Combustion

Toxic emissions that kill over half a million Europeans each year result from poor combustion effciency.

Diesel engines are only 42% effcient in converting the fuel’s chemical energy to mechanical work energy.32 For over a century, this loss of potential work has been explained as the result of inherent barriers in the transi-tion from the heat of combustion to pressure on the piston. The fundamental discovery made by developers of HMWPIB technology is that the physical properties of diesel fuel restrict how much of the fuel’s chemi-cal energy that can be extracted during combustion. A large part of the 58% loss of potential energy is due to poor combustion effciency not to thermodynamics. Poor combustion effciency not only wastes fuel but is responsible for the PM and NOx emissions that have created a health crisis in Europe.

The HMWPIB Breakthrough

Diesel and all other liquid hydrocarbon fuels transition from a liquid to a vapor and are mixed with air before they burn. The uni-formity of the resulting air-fuel mixture directly affects the effciency of combustion. The HMWPIB technology uses the scientifc phenomenon of viscoelasticity to modify the physical properties of the fuel. The air-fuel mixture is made more homogeneous at the molecular level and more of the fuel’s chemical energy is con-verted to mechanical energy. Particulate matter (PM), a product of ineffcient combustion, is reduced and the high rate of heat release at ignition responsible for NOx is inhibited or eliminated.

Proof Of Concept

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) research demonstrates the impact of viscoelasticity on control of droplets in sprayed fuids.

(Keshavarz B, et al. Ligament ßMediated Fragmentation of Viscoelastic Liquids. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2016,117:154502.)

Air-Fuel Mixture With Ordinary Diesel

Fuel spray of ordinary diesel from an injector is character-ized by a wide range of droplet sizes and by poor distribution of the fuel across the spray cone.33,34 Fuel droplets grow in size by collision and coalescence when injected in the high-pressure gas in the cylinder. They also splatter and coat surfaces. A large population of superfne droplets are created35 that burn like a vapor, in an envelope, rather than diffusively like the remainder of the fuel.36 Individual diesel fuel droplets go through a process of fractional distillation as they react to the heat in the cylinder. The more-volatile com-pounds of the fuel migrate preferentially to a droplet’s surface, forming a vapor concentrated with the more volatile compounds. The result is a nonhomogeneous vapor at the molecular level.

Air-Fuel Mixture With HMWPIB

The develop-ers of the HMWPIB technology used viscoelasticity to modify the behavior of diesel fuel as it transitions from a liquid to a vapor and is blended with air in the cylinder.37 A few parts per million of a high-molecular-weight poly-isobutylene is added to diesel fuel to give it viscoelastic properties. When subjected to shear, as in a diesel injector, a viscoelastic liquid experiences an instanta-neous increase in viscosity to the point that it approach-es the behavior of a solid.37 The effect on diesel fuel spray is to reduce average droplet size and distribute fuel more evenly across the spray cone.33,34 The fuel spray entrains more air. Droplets have better penetra-tion of the high-pressure gas in the cylinder where they resist splatter and coating when they contact a surface. Superfne droplets that burn explosively like a vapor are eliminated.

How HMWPIB Increases Fuel Economy

Diesel fuel, and other liquid hydrocarbon fuels, are comprised of many different compounds. Each vaporizes at a different temperature and requires a different amount of oxygen to support its complete conversion to CO2 and H2O when it is burned.40 A homogeneous blend of air and the fuels different compounds is necessary in order to promote complete combustion. HMWPIB increases the homogeneity of the air-fuel mixture at the molecular level. Diesel fuel’s different compounds are more evenly distributed in the fuel vapor and suffcient oxygen is made available at more combustion sites for conversion of the carbon and hydrogen to CO2 and H2O.34 Combustion effciency and fuel economy are increased.

How HMWPIB Reduces PM Emissions

Pyrolysis of diesel fuel is responsible for the formation of the solid carbon particles that are the nucleus of the particulate emissions from a diesel engine.41 Pyrolysis occurs the heat in the cylinder is suffcient to cause diesel to decompose. By increasing the availability of oxygen throughout the air-fuel mixture in a diesel engine HMWPIB inhibits pyrolysis and reduces the production of PM emissions.

HMWPIB

How HMWPIB Reduces NOx

The superfne droplets in the spray from a diesel injector initiate combustion in the diesel cylinder. They burn with a very high rate of heat release, similar to an explosion. This high spike of heat at the beginning of combustion creates the tem-perature/time profle responsible for the decomposition of the nitrogen component of intake air. The HMWPIB technology eliminates superfne droplets in the diesel fuel spray.35 The early high rate of heat release and overall heat of combustion are reduced42 inhibiting nitrogen decomposition. Effcient operation of diesel engines can be carried out without the production of NOx emissions.

The NOx-Fuel Economy Trade-Off

Conventional wisdom has accepted the trade-off between fuel economy and production of NOx in a diesel engine.32 The standard approach to NOx reduction is to lower the temperature of the burn by recycling exhaust gas to reduce oxygen content of the intake air. While reduc-ing NOx, this process also reduces fuel economy and increases emissions of particulate matter. By simultane-ously reducing the rate of heat release at ignition and increasing combustion effciency, HMWPIB eliminates the NOx-fuel economy trade-off. Both NOx and PM are reduced and fuel economy is increased.

HMWPIB Potential

Laboratory and recent over-the-road tests indicate HMWPIB’s potential for reduc-ing the toxic emissions that are the cause of a health crisis in Europe and for reducing CO2 that contributes to climate change. Data from a laboratory program in Cali-fornia shows a reduction in PM of 95.1%.44 Data from a heavy-duty diesel engine in cross country transport show an increase in miles per gallon of 91%.45 Data from a food distribution feet show a reduction in NOx of 54.6.46 This was in standard diesel engines, without any modifcations to optimize performance with the HMW-PIB technology.

Availability

Capacity to produce the commercial product of the HMWPIB technology is currently suf-fcient to treat 9 million gallons of diesel fuel a day.

In A Nutshell

HMWPIB is transformational com-bustion technology that applies physics rather than chemistry to increase the effciency of combustion in a diesel engine. HMWPIB produces more work with less fuel and radically reduces PM and NOx emissions.

Effects of HMWPIB on Combustion in Deisel Engines

HMWPIB has been verifed to reduce diesel emissions by the States of Texas and California. Demonstrations have been carried out with HMWPIB in four-cycle and two-cycle diesel engines, in sizes from 406 cc to 2000 HP, fueled with diesel fuel and with # 6 fuel oil, and in a wide range of applications. The data show HMWPIB consistently increases engine performance, regardless of engine type, fuel, or application.

Examples of Diverse Operational Applications

Booth Bay City Department of Public Works, Booth Bay, ME.
6.6 liter GMC Duamax engine in a city public works pickup truck was operated with HMWPIB. The Public Works Department reported a 28% increase in miles per gallon.

Downeast Energy Inc. Brunswick, ME.
245 HP International DT466 engine in a propane delivery truck was operated with HMWPIB. The energy company reported a 40% increase in mpg. This was a 2005 model engine containing advanced en-gineering features designed to meet government requirements for reducing exhaust emissions.

US Army National Training Center, Fort Irwin, CA.
500 HP De-troit Diesel two-cycle engine in a US Army Heavy Equipment Transporter was operated with HMWPIB in a feld trial at the National Training Center (NTC), Fort Irwin. The purpose of the test was to determine whether HMWPIB would prevent engine overheating. NTC reported reduced engine temperature and approximately 25% reduction in fuel consumption.

Mesilla Valley Transport, Las Cruces, NM.
500 HP Caterpillar 3406 E engine in a Kenworth tractor operating with HMW-PIB had its fuel consumption recorded every two weeks for one year. Compared with the previous baseline, mpg was increased by 31%.

Maine Central Railroad. Brunswick, ME.
A 2000 HP EMD 645 two-cycle engine in a railroad locomotive operating with HMWPIB was run in tandem with an identical locomotive fueled with neat diesel fuel. The organization conducting the test reported that fuel consumption of the locomotive with HMWPIB was 30% less than its twin.

Electrical Generation Plant, Pacasmayo, Peru.
2000 HP Sulzer two-cycle engine fueled with residual # 6 fuel oil in a power plant in Pacasmayo, Peru, was operated with HMW-PIB. The operator of the test reported a 21% reduction in fuel consumption.

Laboratory Testing

The Southwest Research Institute conducted a test of a Peu-geot DV4 diesel engine following the SAE J 1995 gross power protocol. They found that at rated power, torque was increased 13% when HMWPIB was added to the fuel.

California Environmental Engineering conducted a series of dynamometer tests using a Detroit Diesel series 60 heavy-duty diesel engine. Data from the three-mode steady state test showed a reduction of 95.61% in PM and a reduction of 21.97% in NOx when HMWPIB was added to the fuel.

Laboratory Tests of Spray Structure.
Studies conducted at University of Illinois and University of California Irvine demon-strated effect of HMWPIB on the structure of fuel spray from atomizer/injector nozzles. In all tests, Sauter mean diameter of spray droplets was reduced. There was a large reduction of droplet size close to the centerline of the spray and more uniform distribution of the fuel across the spray cone.

Government Emission Reduction Verifcations

The Texas Commission On Environmental Quality approved fuel treated with HMWPIB as an alternative diesel fuel formula-tion under the their low emission diesel (TxLED) program. As an alternative formulation it was required to match or exceed the PM and NOx reductions achieved by reformulated diesel fuel produced by the refneries under a statutory TxLED formula.*

California Environmental Protection Agency Air Resources Board verifed HMWPIB as a strategy for controlling emissions of PM from diesel engines under its Diesel Emissions Control Strategies Verifcation program. The verifcation is for greater than 25% reduction in PM.*

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